[108] The scripture asserts that those who are consigned to this state will be aware of its duration and limitations. Here we go one more time: “And these will go away into eternal (aionios) punishment, but the righteous into eternal (aionios) life.” ECT advocates say that the parallel between “eternal” life and “eternal” punishment must mean that the act of punishing will last forever since the life given to the righteous lasts forever. [105] However, according to Mormon faith, since most humans lack such an extent of religious enlightenment, they cannot commit the Eternal sin,[106] and the vast majority of residents of outer darkness will be the "devil and his angels ... the third part of the hosts of heaven" who in the pre-existence followed Lucifer and never received a mortal body. Think of it like a mortgage—at some point, you pay it off and satisfy the debt. One historic Protestant view of hell is expressed in the Westminster Confession (1646): According to the Alliance Commission on Unity & Truth among Evangelicals (ACUTE) the majority of Protestants have held that hell will be a place of perpetual conscious torment, both physical and spiritual. Second, Revelation 14:9-11 also seems to suggest never ending torment: And another angel, a third, followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and its image and receives a mark on his forehead or on his hand, he also will drink the wine of God’s wrath, poured full strength into the cup of his anger, and he will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. Annihilationists attempt to deny this by claiming that the beast and false prophet represent institutions and not persons and thus could not be tormented forever, but this is not convincing. [25][26] There is no created place of divine absence, nor is hell an ontological separation from God. Ludwig Ott's work "The Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma" said: "Hell is a place or state of eternal punishment inhabited by those rejected by God". (I Corinthians 15-28) Those who have God as their "all" within this life will finally have divine fulfillment and life. Thus it is the Church's spiritual teaching that God does not punish man by some material fire or physical torment. Well, aside from the case that can be made from the rest of the Bible for annihilationism,6Some also argue that the fate of humans isn’t even separable from that of the devil, and that if this passage proves eternal torment for anyone, it proves it for all who oppose God.there are a numb… The Greek word "everlasting" there is the adjective aionion, which is related to the noun, aion meaning "age". Matthew 25:46 is the poster child verse for those who believe in eternal conscious torment in hell. These verses, it is argued, indicate that death is only a period or form of slumber. The Catholic Church has decided nothing on this subject; hence we may say hell is a definite place; but where it is, we do not know." 14:11, Isa. Eternal Conscious Torment cannot explain degrees of suffering.... No matter how much any given member of the damned has suffered in that view, there is always an infinite amount of suffering to be continuously endured. "[45], Pope John Paul II stated on 28 July 1999, that, in speaking of Hell as a place, the Bible uses "a symbolic language", which "must be correctly interpreted … Rather than a place, hell indicates the state of those who freely and definitively separate themselves from God, the source of all life and joy. Of outer darkness and the sons of perdition, Mormon scripture states that "the end thereof, neither the place thereof, nor their torment, no man knows; Neither was it revealed, neither is, neither will be revealed unto man, except to them who are made partakers thereof". Third, ECT advocates point out that the language of “destruction” (or “perish,” Greek: apoleia or olethros) doesn’t have to mean “pass out of existence” but can simply mean “ruin” or “to end the original function of something/someone.” For instance, Jesus says that if you put new wine into old wineskins, both the wine and the wineskins will be “destroyed.” Certainly Jesus doesn’t think the wine and wineskins will be blasted into oblivion upon contact. By refusing communion with God, he becomes a predator, condemning himself to a spiritual death (hell) more dreadful than the physical death that derives from it. "The recent Catechism is ambiguous, neither denying nor confirming the existence of physical torments" - Charles Steven Seymour, "A Theodicy of Hell', p. 82 (2000). At Fatima in Portugal, it is claimed that Our Lady told St. Jacinta Marto; that more sinners go to Hell because of sins of impurity more than any other.[74][75]. In death, life and consciousness are gone. Those who remain selfish and self-centered with a hardened heart, closed to God's love, will not see the glory of God in this life. In this post, I want to summarize the best arguments for eternal conscious torment (ECT)—the traditional view of hell where the wicked will experience never-ending punishment. 32:22, Deut. The Seventh-day Adventist Church holds annihilationism. If John of Revelation 14 wants to use the Isa 34 image differently, he can certainly do so. Revelation 20:15). Even if by "everlasting punishment" is meant "everlasting conscious torment", this passage in itself does not prove the eternal torment of the wicked since the Greek word, "aionios", can mean either limited or unlimited duration. [25][28] For one who hates God and by extension hates himself as God's image-bearer, to be encompassed by the divine presence could only result in unspeakable anguish. The Destruction of the Finally Impenitent by Clark H. Pinnock, Jesus' Teaching on Hell by Samuel G. Dawson, at the Cornell University, PJ Mode Collection of Persuasive Cartography (Browse "Heaven and Hell" Category), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Christian_views_on_Hell&oldid=991983298#Eternal_conscious_torment, Articles with dead external links from August 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2011, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Maps with Christian views on Hell can be found in the, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 21:20. They reject the idea of a place of literal eternal pain or torment as being inconsistent with God's love and justice. Tartaro:Definition 1. He certainly was not denying that it is a place, but instead was shifting our focus to the real essence of hell—what the term 'hell' truly indicates—the self-chosen separation from God. This is understood to be a temporary state in which the spirits of deceased persons will be taught the gospel and have an opportunity to repent and accept ordinances of salvation. To say that eternal conscious torment is immoral by nature is an opinion. "[62], It is agreed that Hell is a place of suffering.[63][64][65]. Isaiah 66:24 does not indicate, however, that people are eternal or that they suffer eternal torment, on the contrary. 20:15 +). In its review, Publishers Weekly called the book "persuasively argued. [80][81], The varying Protestant views of "hell", both in relation to Hades (i.e., the abode of the dead) and Gehenna (i.e., the destination of the wicked), are largely a function of the varying Protestant views on the intermediate state between death and resurrection; and different views on the immortality of the soul or the alternative, the conditional immortality. I believed it and I taught it to others. Even if by "everlasting punishment" is meant "everlasting conscious torment", this passage in itself does not prove the eternal torment of the wicked since the Greek word, "aionios", can mean either limited or unlimited duration. See universal reconciliation, apocatastasis and the Problem of Hell. "Empirical Theology Versus Speculative Theology" by John S. Romanides part 2. Second, if Jesus is going ...". But it is uncertain where the place is" Addis & Arnold (eds). This verse quotes from Isaiah 66:24 and mentions both unquenchable fire and worms that never die. [17][18][19] Gehenna is most frequently described as a place of punishment (e.g., Matthew 5:22, Matthew 18:8-9; Mark 9:43-49); other passages mention darkness and "weeping and gnashing of teeth" (e.g., Matthew 8:12; Matthew 22:13). In Part One of this article I discussed how some prominent evangelicals recently have abandoned the doctrine of eternal, conscious punishment for the wicked in favor of various annihilation theories. "For our God is a consuming fire" (Hebrews 12:29) who "dwells in unapproachable light." Annihilationism is the belief that unredeemed souls will be “annihilated,” i.e. [95], Christian Science defines "hell" as follows: "Mortal belief; error; lust; remorse; hatred; revenge; sin; sickness; death; suffering and self-destruction; self-imposed agony; effects of sin; that which 'worketh abomination or maketh a lie.' The Catechism of the Catholic Church which, when published in 1992, Pope John Paul II declared to be "a sure norm for teaching the faith",[43] defines hell as a freely chosen consequence of refusing to love God: The Baltimore Catechism defined Hell by using the word "state" alone: "Hell is a state to which the wicked are condemned, and in which they are deprived of the sight of God for all eternity, and are in dreadful torments." The most natural meaning of the never-ending smoke, based on its original meaning in Isaiah, is terminal punishment. Pharisees weren't being warned of Eternal Conscious Torment. The word “destroy” doesn’t have to mean “annihilate.”, I think this is a good point that needs to be considered by adherents to terminal punishment—and I’m sure they have. Why shouldn’t we take Revelation 20:10 as a straightforward text that teaches that, at the very least, the devil will be tormented day and night for ever and ever? At all events the doctrine of conscious, eternal torment for impenitent men is clearly revealed in the Word of God. Immediately after death the souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell, where they suffer the punishments of hell, "eternal fire". Guild, E.E. ECT advocates say that “a punishment of eternal fire” refers to the eternal conscious torment of unbelievers. 9:10, Song 8:6, Isa. Man has a malfunctioning or non-functioning noetic faculty in the heart, and it is the task especially of the clergy to apply the cure of unceasing memory of God, otherwise called unceasing prayer or illumination. As to "eternal conscious torment", there are a lot of differing views on it. [77], The Catholic Church teaches that no one is predestined to Hell, and that the Church's teaching on Hell is not meant to frighten but is a call for people to use their freedom wisely. It turns out that his reasons are not first of all to do with God’s revelation in scripture but with a gag-reflex—his moral revulsion against a deity that would preside over an eternal conscious torment in hell. Their death is final. Jericho, $16 trade paper (208p) ISBN 978-1-4555-8224-2", "Week 1 - Lent with Jacinta - The "sins of impurity, "Catechism of the Catholic Church – Hell", "The Nature of Hell. [68], Saint Augustine of Hippo said that the suffering of hell is compounded because God continues to love the sinner who is not able to return the love. Jude 5-7, for instance, reads: Now I want to remind you, although you once fully knew it, that Jesus, who saved a people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe. The depiction in these particular icons, a depiction that may have developed from 12th-century Greek and South Slavic depictions differentiating sinners and their punishments (p. 68), is referred to by Himka as "the new hell", "because various sinners are being punished in a squarish area with torments that did not appear in the standard Byzantine iconography" (p. 42). Church and ministry leadership resources to better equip, train and provide ideas for today's church and ministry leaders, like you. The Bible says that God created this terrible place to serve as the ultimate destiny of the Devil and his angels (Matthew 25:41). It is the presence of God's splendid glory and love that is the scourge of those who reject its radiant power and light. Hades is an intermediate state for the wicked between death and resurrection—a resurrection that will lead to judgment (Dan 12:2) and then the punishment of hell. We shouldn’t read ECT into ever passage where “undying” is mentioned, or where we see the wicked being punished or suffering. Conscious definition, aware of one's own existence, sensations, thoughts, surroundings, etc. God made hell to punish the devils or bad angels, and all who die in mortal sin. [66], Although the Catechism explicitly speaks of the punishments of hell in the plural, calling them "eternal fire", and speaks of eternal separation from God as the "chief" of those punishments, one commentator claims that it is non-committal on the existence of forms of punishment other than that of separation of God: after all, God, being above all a merciful and loving entity, takes no pleasure in the death of the living, and does not will or predestine anyone to go there (the Catholic stance is that God does not will suffering, and that the only entities known to be in hell beyond a doubt are Satan and his evil angels, and that the only suffering in hell is not fire or torture, but the freely-chosen, irrevocable and inescapable eternal separation from God and his freely given love, and the righteous, who are in heaven; thus the Church and the Popes have placed emphasis on the potential irreversibility of a mortally sinful life that goes un-absolved before one's death, and the dogma and reality of the place or state of hell). 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In favor of terminal punishment 14 wants to use the Isa 34 image differently, he can certainly do.. Different Hebrew and Greek words are translated as `` hell is not,... Genuinely receives Christ and remains in union with him, hell and eternal death to your.. Mark 9:48 is another verse sometimes used to support the idea of eternal conscious torment or Infernalism ) a. As speculation: as Augustine says ( De Civ divine absence, nor is hell an ontological separation God!, hell becomes a nonissue train and provide ideas for today 's Church and ministry,. Roman Catholic doctrines night is a consuming fire '' of God 's glory,. Meaning `` age '' problem of hell as being a place in two stages:,. Suffer for all eternity those whose names are conscious torment meaning written in the Bible, the same will. Led some theologians [ who? the part that is central to the view of eternal punishment in mythology... 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