Ans. Such an accommodation was not considered by the Hoa Hao as a betrayal of their nationalist goals, because the ultimate aim of sectarian independence was not compromised. [4], Return of the French colonial regime was a major disappointment to the Hoa Hao, as it was to Vietnamese nationalists of all political persuasions. But the return of the French in strength too numerous for the Hoa Hao "army" to oppose effectively put a temporary end to such hopes. Finally, in exchange for a contribution in money or goods, amulets are distributed by a monk of the pagoda; these amulets preserve from death, illness, and misfortune. Neither adepts nor leaders were particularly interested any longer in promoting radical change or even in pursuing the violent expansion of the sect. These are viewed as a waste of money which would be better spent helping the needy. During the early years of the Vietnam War in the 1960s, An Giang Province and its capital Long Xuyên were among the few places in the Mekong Delta where Viet Cong activity was minimal and American and South Vietnamese troops could move without fear of sniper attack. "Apocalypse Now? Furthermore, the adepts are virtually leaderless. Master's advocacy of ritual frugality probably attracted many poor peasants by allowing them to turn practical necessity into religious virtue. (iii) He opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium. Hoa Hao Buddhism is generally considered an apocalyptic religion: believers are held to anticipate the impending destruction of the world and seek refuge provided by faith. The Hoa Hao turned their attention inward, both to solidify their sectarian strength and to increase their political influence in the delta. Temporary alliances with past enemies were formed only as a means of survival and to gain strength for the future. Within a year, he had gathered a following of over 100,000 converts; and through his preaching, he established contact with another two million people in the Mien Tay region. Taylor has found members of the faith, like many residents of the Mekong Delta, to have wide horizons. 3 (2001): 339–354. The presence of a significant Islamic community in the local area has an impact on the Hoa Hao religion. At these times, candles are lit on the altar, and joss-sticks are placed in the incense-burner; the caretaker of the temple gives several strokes of the Huynh Phu So for his part was willing to engage in alliances with the colonialists in return for support against the Viet Minh. The sayings of Patriarch Huynh were thus broadcast daily over loudspeakers. John B. Haseman. A large community of ethnic Cham converts to Islam live in close proximity to Hoa Hao village. As a lay-Buddhist organization primarily focused on Vietnamese peasants, it also eschews elaborate Buddhist rituals, maintains no monastic order, and teaches home practice. It was wrong to conceive of religious piety as something separate from the rest of life, as a set of exercises that were to be performed on an occasional basis. Its founder was Huynh Phu So. Create papers in minutes Print with your name & Logo Download as PDF 3 Lakhs+ Questions Solutions Included Based on CBSE Blueprint Best fit for Some members of unregistered Hoa Hao groups are subject to police harassment, surveillance, confiscation of property, beatings, restrictions on movement and the disruption of their religious activities (see State treatment of Hoa The largest number of Hòa Hảo-ists live in Santa Ana, California, USA. He is mentally weak, with a disharmony of the intellectual faculties. Because of the overwhelmingly domestic nature of the cult, the French observer Georges Coulet called it in 1926 the " Third Buddhist Order, " explaining that it was neither monastic nor congregational but mostly lay. He is referred to as Phật Thầy Tây An or "Buddha Master of the Western Peace". The French declared him mad and put … The Chipko movement is a step taken by the government to stop thousands and millions of trees all over India from being felled. Above all, they were to live in accord with one another and trust each other. Within the Hoa Hao communities, the preachers of old were replaced by lay administrators who were elected and unpaid. The founders of these traditions are regarded by Hòa Hảo followers as living Buddhas—destined to save mankind from suffering and to protect the Vietnamese nation. 14. This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 18:20. His adepts were exhorted to uphold the Three Bonds: between ruler and subject (transmuted into patriotism), father and son, and husband and wife. Gradeup (Gradestack) - Exam preparation for GATE, BANK, SSC/Govt jobs, CTET, and Defence. Its founder was Huynh Phu So. The Viet Minh was formed in China in May 1941 by Ho Chi Minh. The Congress of Vienna was held in 1815.It was chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. Làng Hòa Hảo XÆ°a và Này (Hòa Hảo Village Past and Present) Ho Chi Minh City: Nha Xuat Ban Thanh Pho Ho Chi Minh, 1999. The final Saigon victories in 1962 signaled the end of the independent Hao Hao army. The man behind this movement was Huynh Phu So. The founder of Hoa Hao was a man called Huynh Phu So. The most widely accepted sol-gel theory (Hyman, Mast, Pantin 1917-25) explains the formation of pseudopodia. He is mentally weak, with a disharmony of the intellectual faculties. They were to observe the Five Virtues of benevolence, loyalty, propriety, intelligence, and integrity. But communitarianism proved ill-suited to the social complexities of an urban environment. [citation needed], Some Hòa Hảo adherents migrated to the United States. Before long, Huynh Phu So was preaching with growing frenzy against the Viet Minh, which he now perceived as an even greater threat to the sect than the French. Hòa Hảo Buddhism Emerging from the Shadows of War", The Australian Journal of Anthropology, Vol. Phạm Bích Hợp. The Hoa Hao took full advantage of this new-found independence to wage total war against the Communists, now known as the Viet Cong. 2) The Hoa Hao was a competing ideology of change to Communist revolution and traces its progression and limitations as a movement. With the end of the war, the Hoa Hao joined with their old enemy, the French colonialists, to strengthen themselves against a more serious foe, the Viet Minh. The Hoa Hao had long been suspicious of the National Front and the Viet Minh, and had actively fought the latter for years. Ask questions, doubts, problems and we will help you. However, parallel to this movement, there was another emergent movement known as the Hoa Hao movement. Đạo Hòa Hảo und Phật giáo Hòa Hảo, selten Hoahaoismus) ist der Name einer buddhistischen neuen religiösen Bewegung („ Sekte “), die im Jahr 1939 vom erst neunzehnjährigen Huỳnh Phú Sổ im Mekongdelta im Süden Vietnams – zu diesem Zeitpunkt Cochinchina unter französischer Kolonialherrschaft – gegründet wurde. Hoa Hao movement began in 1939 and gained great popularity in the fertile Mekong delta area. Evangelizing took the form of religious and academic education. Today, some of the most cosmopolitan people in the delta, boat captains, traders, café owners and physicians, belong to this religion. He performed miracles and helped the poor. It drew on religious ideas popular in jr* anti-french uprisings of the nineteenth century. However, this never happened and the Hòa Hảo came into conflict with the communists both because the Việt Minh were anti-Japanese and because of their Marxist opposition to all religion. This was the agenda and the heart and soul of the rising nationalistic fervour. Hoa Hao, in full Phat Giao Hoa Hao, Vietnamese Buddhist religious movement that was formed in 1939 by the Buddhist reformer Huynh Phu So. As brown is considered the combination of all colors, it is used to symbolize human harmony and the connectedness and interdependence of all people. The ceremonies commemorating the birth of this prophet were outlawed. Although the Hoa Hao had an "army" of four combat battalions, they were eventually defeated by Saigon's much larger forces. On the way, he was led into a trap in which he and his four escorts were attacked but three were assassinated. They put themselves entirely at the service of Huynh Phu So. on religious ideas popular in anti - French uprisings of the nineteenth century. The establishment of the sectarian infrastructure helped preserve their cohesion, but the corollary de-emphasis on charisma made it harder to mobilize the collectivity of the adepts into action. Originally concerned only with religious autonomy, the Hoa Hao became a nationalist anti-French movement before World War II; then increasingly anti-Communist as it struggled for supremacy with the Viet Minh; then overtly pro-Japanese for purely tactical reasons. The sect opened schools at all levels, and in the early 1970s it even established a university. (In the 1940s, the Hoa Hao united the sects of the western Delta into a theocratic state, and [3], The earliest followers of the Hoa Hao were not just landless peasants impoverished by capitalism but small holders and there are those who work in transport, light industry and trade. 12, No. However, the founder of Hoa Hao Buddhism, Huynh Phu So, also organized Hoa Hao teachings into a more structured movement focused on self-cultivation, filial piety and reverence toward the Three Treasures of Buddhism (the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha). The Hoa Hao Movement was launched in 1939. As a result, the Hoa Hao were thereafter left alone, and won tacit permission to maintain a kind of sovereignty in the Transbassac. In May 1945 Huynh Phu So issued a pamphlet called "Guidelines for the Practice of Religion" (Ton Chi Hanh Dao), in which he codified Hoa Hao cultic practices and for the first time imposed rules on admission into the sect. It drew on religious ideas popular in jr* anti-french uprisings of the nineteenth century. It was founded by Huynh Phu So who is called … But the Hoa Hao "alliance" with the Viet Minh was short-lived. Strengthened by French armaments, the Hoa Hao now turned against the French because they were convinced that colonial rule in Vietnam was destined to be ended by Asians. Hòa Hảo claims approximately ten million followers throughout Vietnam; in some provinces near its delta birthplace, as many as 90 percent of the population practice this tradition. Huynh Phu So restated that the doctrine was lay-oriented, and he advocated the reduction of cultic expenses not only in the practice of Buddhism but also on all ceremonial occasions. Life in Hoa Hao villages continued to be led along simple lines. Healing was now the province of a health service operated free of charge by the sect. Offices are celebrated thrice a day: at dawn, noon, and dusk. Hoa Hao has its own flag which is rectangular and brown but which bears no characters or images. [2], The founder of the Hoa Hao was Huynh Phu So, who took for the name of his sect the village of Hoa Hao, in the Thot Not District of what is now An Giang Province. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The surrounding area is full of mosques and its residents number many devout Muslims. The influences are evident in the Hoa Hao's religious practices; doctrine and architecture; the approach to prayer and preaching houses. [6], Hoa Hao claim to have faced restrictions on their religious and political activities after 1975, in part because of their previous armed opposition to Communist forces. Adherents are expected to attend communal services on the 1st and 15th of each lunar month and on other Buddhist holy days. Đạo Hòa Hảo (Vietnamese: [ɗâːwˀ hwàː hâːw] (listen), Chữ Hán: .mw-parser-output .vi-nom{font-family:"Han-Nom Gothic","Nom Na Tong","Han-Nom Ming","Han-Nom Minh","HAN NOM A","HAN NOM B","Han-Nom Kai","Sun-ExtA","Sun-ExtB","Ming-Lt-HKSCS-UNI-H","Ming-Lt-HKSCS-ExtB","HanaMinA","HanaMinB","HanaMin","MingLiU","MingLiU-ExtB","MingLiU HKSCS","MingLiU HKSCS-ExtB","SimSun","SimSun-ExtB","FZKaiT-Extended","FZKaiT-Extended(SIP)",sans-serif}.mw-parser-output .vi-nom .ext{font-family:"Han-Nom Gothic","Han-Nom Ming","Han-Nom Minh","BabelStone Han","Sun-ExtB","MingLiU HKSCS-ExtB","Ming-Lt-HKSCS-ExtB","HanaMinB","Han-Nom Kai",sans-serif}道和好), also Hoahaoism,[1] is a quasi-Buddhist religion, founded in 1939 by Huỳnh Phú Sổ (Popularly called Phật thầy, "Buddha Master" in Vietnamese), a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam. The Hoa Hao religion has been open to a range of different influences, including Marxism, nationalism, the cult of heroes, and liberal democracy. They surmise that he is still among the living. [citation needed] After the war, the Hòa Hảo were allowed to remain, but like all religions, under strict Communist control. The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China Class 10 MCQs Questions with Answers Choose the correct option: Question 1. Such activities in accordance with the Master's injunction to social engagement represent a viable and promising basis for the Hoa Hao to secure broader political support. The Buddha They also held onto their arms, and organized militia forces to defend the geographical heartland of the movement. He divided diseases into two categories: those that were the result of ordinary ill-fortune, and those that were the result of karmic retribution. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Hoa Hao, along with the syncretic religious group Cao Dai, was one of the first groups to initiate armed hostilities against the … It was a Buddhist religious movement launched c by Huynh Phu So, a native of Mekong river Jt delta. The proscription on displaying Buddha statues on the household altar is borrowed from Islam's proscription on the worship of images. In return, the Hoa Hao recognized the authority of the Saigon regime. Today many members of the Hoa Hao still consider themselves engaged in a desperate struggle for survival, Some followers with whom Taylor spoke in Vietnam believed that the religion has recently secured limited recognition because of the large number of Hoa Hao believers who are in the local party and state administration quietly pushing for change. Therefore this movement might be viewed as a product of the antecedent historical phenomena, notably the Southward Movement, or Nam Tiến . But the ultimate goal of the movement was always to control its own destiny without interference from any outside source. womens were more suppotive for the chipko movement… ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, "UNPO: Montagnards, Khmer Krom: Religious Intolerance Rewarded by UN", Web site of a US-based Hoa Hao association, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hòa_Hảo&oldid=995185852, Religious organizations established in 1939, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2020, Articles needing additional references from November 2020, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, My-Van, Tran (2003). At the time of Diem’s death in 1963, the Hoa Hao had control of several southern and western provinces of South Vietnam. Taylor, Philip. Viet Minh, organization that led the struggle for Vietnamese independence from French rule. There were, however, crackdowns in the face of demands that the government speed up this process. They are informed about and engaged with current developments, interested in news of the outside world, focused on social work, improving the physical infrastructure of their locale and the building of a moral community. In 2001 there were again serious protests and arrests; a female member of the religion reportedly committed self-immolation to protest against restrictions on religious freedom[4]. Prayers are said in low voice; a few beads are recited. Huynh Phu So insisted on being referred to by his proper name of So and on using for his sect the name of his native village of Hoa Hao which meant "peace and plenty." Huynh Phu So embroidered the idea that money is the source of evil, both for those who had not enough and for those who had too much. 3. He attacked the custom of overspending at the New Year, of bankrupting one's family at funerals and weddings, and of trying to outdo one's neighbors in conspicuous consumption. It soon became clear that religious autonomy and the attendant political freedom demanded by the Hoa Hao were incompatible with Viet Minh plans. bell and the faithful perform several prostrations in front of the altar, bowing their heads to the ground. This theory is called Rinaldi and Johni (1963 [citation needed] Two Hòa Hảo Buddhists self-immolated in 2005 to protest against religious persecution and more recently, after a wave of arrests of Hòa Hảo Buddhists, nine more were imprisoned in May 2007. The Viet Minh quartered his body and scattered it to prevent the Hoa Hao from recovering his remains and building a martyr's shrine. Analyse the role of 'Hoa-Hao' movement to arouse anti-imperialist sentiments in Vietnam. Many believe that Hoa Hao Buddhism spread from Vietnam to the rest of the world, following his overseas travels. His criticism against useless The basis of the Buu Son Ky Huong religion was the Buddha Master's claim to be a messenger from Heaven who had come into the world to warn mankind of the imminence of apocalypse. He performed miracles and helped the poor. . Hoa Hao (1939) was an anti-colonial religious movement popular in the fretile Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. [2], While Huynh Phu So is regarded by most commentators as a traditionalist, and indeed many of his teachings support such an interpretation, he also had a well-defined modernizing vision, evident, for example in his imprecation against superstition. "The Hoa Hao: A Half-Century of Conflict", Asian Affairs, Vol. Each of these new recruits were people of little education, interested in action rather than in doctrinal or political questions. Although led primarily by communists, the Viet Minh operated as a national This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hoa-Hao-Vietnamese-religious-movement. Hoa hao movement. [3], The sect expanded rapidly under Japanese protection. So preached that any Hoa Hao killing ten Viet Minh would have a straight pathway to heaven. No longer forced to devote their military forces to the struggle against the central government, they were able to resume their feud with the Communists. During the State of Vietnam (1949–1955), they made arrangements with the Head of State Bảo Đại, much like those made by the Cao Đài religion and the Bình Xuyên gang, which were in control of their own affairs in return for their nominal support of the Bảo Đại regime. ADVERTISEMENTS: (i) Hoa Hao movement began in 1939 and gained popularity in the fertile Mekong delta area. (ii) The founder of this movement was a man called Huynh Phu So. Being a Hoa Hao was no longer a bar to participation in government, and the sect was no longer subject to religious discrimination by the orthodox Buddhist hierarchy. Plus 2 Academy This is the 4th part of nationalist movement in indo china. Fasts and abstinences can be once a month, once every two months, once a week, once every two weeks, or perpetual . Even though Huynh Phu So was unable to leave Saigon, his apostles recruited on his behalf, using the familiar mixture of doom-laden predictions and veiled threats against those who did not join and distributing cures and amulets. . A believer away from home at prayer times faces west (i.e., toward India) to pray to the Buddha. The Hoa Hao movement was found by a man called Huynh Phu So in1939. As the popularity of Hòa Hảo grew, Huỳnh Phú Sổ made a series of prophecies about the political future of Vietnam. [citation needed]. [citation needed], In Hòa Hảo homes, a plain brown cloth serves as an altar, at which the family prays morning and night. During World War II, the Hòa Hảo supported the Japanese occupation and planned for Cường Để to become Emperor of Vietnam. Huynh Phu So's criticism against useless expenditure has a wide appeal. When and where did Phan Boi Chau meet Liang Qichao? A tentative easing of control on the religion began in 1999. Homeowners associations can institute some ridiculous rules—and some of them can even cross the legal line. It drew. Hoa Hao was one such movement against the French which started in 1939 and became a rage in the Mekong Delta. Hoa Hao Buddhism draws upon an earlier Buddhist millenarian movement called Bá»­u SÆ¡n Kỳ HÆ°Æ¡ng and reveres Đoàn Minh Huyên (14 November 1807 - 10 September 1856) who started the movement as a living, healing Buddha. This was contradictory to the spirit of nationalism. Moreover, the care of the living has priority over the welfare of the dead. The latter's verdict was more charitable: "This monk has never presented signs of agitation or insanity. Hoa Hao Movement: It began in 1939 and gained great popularity in the fertile Mekong delta area The founder of Hoa Hao was a man called Huynh Phu So. The Hoa Hao vowed to wage eternal war against the Communists. By August 1940, the Can Tho authorities were alarmed by their activities and by the destabilizing influence of Huynh Phu So. Movement by pseudopodia is called pseudopodial movement. By 1943, the Hoa Hao sect was thus moving in the direction of greater institutionalization. Since then, Hòa Hảo split into two factions – more and less militant. [4], The ultimate goal of the Hoa Hao religion is the preservation of their religious identity and independence. After 1954 the Hoa Hao and Cao Dai began armed opposition to the U.S.-backed government of President Ngo Dinh Diem. He said that the "true king" would return to lead Vietnam to freedom and prosperity, which caused most Hòa Hảo to support the Nguyễn pretender: Marquis Cường Để, living abroad in Japan. [2], The Hoa Hao works images of globes into their iconography which is an aesthetic expression of universalism reflecting an imagining of the spatial condition as global. The struggle with the Viet Minh became a fanatical religious war. The shift in loyalty from the colonialists to the National Front movement did not represent a major break for the Hoa Hao. [4], Although Hòa Hảo Buddhism is an officially recognized religion in Vietnam, many members refuse the forceful governmental affiliation which is entailed by official recognition[clarification needed] and an unknown number of religious leaders have been detained for this reason. No one could plead lack of means or difficult circumstances as a justification for not carrying out his own religious duties and for relying instead on monks, but these duties were kept to a minimum. Western technology in fact provided the sect with a new tool of mass education when the focus of Hoa Hao village life, the reading-room, was connected to a public-address system. The Đạo Bá»­u SÆ¡n Kỳ HÆ°Æ¡ng religion was described by its adherents as "committed to the world". Is your HOA breaking the law? It consists of the observance of fasts and abstinences, of the daily recitation of prayers, of invocations which must be said at certain hours of the day or night: it imposes visits to mountain pagodas on the fifteenth day of the first, seventh, and tenth months of the Annamite year. Huynh Phu So, the founder of the Hoa Hao went to school in Tan Chau, in a heavily Muslim area. Based in the prosperous Mekong River delta area of southern Vietnam, where its adherents were mostly peasants, tenants, and rural workers, the Hoa Hao grew rapidly during the Japanese occupation in World War II. He would no longer be one of many healers and preachers but the prophet of a distinct religious movement with its own name, built on the Buu Son Ky Huong tradition rather than simply part of it. Updates? Aid to the poor is favored over pagoda-building or expensive rituals; religious and social ceremonies are ideally simple and modest, and are not to include the food offerings, divination services, and elaborate wedding and funeral customs found in some manifestations of Southeast Asian life. The latter was not amenable to treatment; only repentance could alleviate it. "[citation needed] In spite of being considered "mentally weak," So converted several of the hospital wardens and, more important, his own doctor, who became a devoted follower of Huynh Phu So, until he was assassinated by the Viet Minh in 1948. Charity also became organized: the sect offered relief for veterans and prisoners, for victims of floods and fire, for old people and orphans. Hoa Hao is a Vietnamese Buddhist religious movement, named after the village in south Vietnam where its founder Huynh Phu So was born and where he started his preaching in 1939, simplifying the Buddhist religious practice in a way not unlike the way Protestant Reformation had … Adherents consider Sổ to be a prophet, and Hòa Hảo a continuation of a 19th-century Buddhist ministry known as Bá»­u SÆ¡n Kỳ HÆ°Æ¡ng (Sino-Vietnamese 寶山奇香). Mention any 2 factors which prevented the growth of Vietnam in the early 20th century? Huynh Phu So had hoped that his sect would become the de facto ruling power throughout most of Cochinchina. [3], Huynh Phu So taught that each member of the sect could achieve direct communion with the Lord Buddha, and that internal faith was more important than external ceremony. Huynh Phu So's stated objective was to "combine the ideal of universal love and charity with a new method of organizing society in order to serve better our people and mankind.” But he had no real understanding of the workings of a complex social system and therefore could not evolve a strategy for bringing about the new order of things, except through the violent expansion of his sect. [4], Throughout his career, healing remained an important feature of Huynh Phu So's work; a substantial number of pamphlets describing the herbal remedies employed by Huynh Phu So still exist. It gained great popularity in the fertile Mekong Delta area. He opposed the sale of child brides, gambling, the use of alcohol and opium. In many ways, this faith embodies an extremely rational and sophisticated solution to the problems of this world and the Mekong Delta in particular. The Bá»­u SÆ¡n Kỳ HÆ°Æ¡ng movement emerged in mid-19 th century, just before the French colonial conquest of the South. Đạo Hòa Hảo , also Hoahaoism, is a quasi-Buddhist religion, founded in 1939 by Huỳnh Phú Sổ (Popularly called Phật thầy, "Buddha Master" in Vietnamese), a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam. Its founder was Huynh Phu So 03. This illuminates the history of violence in which the Hoa Hao have been involved. Phan Boi Chau met Liang Qichao in Yokohama in 1905. [4], Of a less revolutionary order of activity, members of the faith are also very active in health care provision, community development activities and philanthropy. In each land he visited the creed has been adapted to the local customs and is called by a different name. 6, 373–383. He performed miracles and helped the poor. His criticism against useless expenditure had a wide appeal. He performed miracles and helped the poor. Vietnam Hoa Hao: Hoa Hao is an indigenous religious tradition, a variant of Buddhism practiced in the Mekong Delta. He was summoned for a psychiatric examination at Can Tho hospital. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. A number of the towers, such as the one located by the Mekong River in Tan Chau town, have ornate sculpted decorations in an Islamic style and domed roofs. An important characteristic of this movement is its emphasis on peasant farmers, exemplified by the old slogan, "Practicing Buddhism While Farming Your Land". Beneath the Japanese Umbrella: Vietnam's Hòa Hào during and after the Pacific War, Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 17 (1), 60-107. In 2007, the Vietnamese government had the printed prophesies of the founder seized and reprinted to a volume slightly more than half the original size. So's background is not completely known; but most authorities agree that he was a mystic who saw a vision instructing him to launch a new religion. 13. The adepts were guided by Huynh Phu So's teachings concerning cultic practices and daily conduct, and they kept the number of ceremonies low and the expenses connected with them minimal. The French, becoming increasingly distrustful of the Viet Minh, soon gave the Hoa Hao territorial hegemony in the southwestern delta. See the general flow the nationalist movement in Indochina was to drive away the French from Vietnam. Approach to prayer and preaching houses Hòa Hảo belief accord with one and. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https: //www.britannica.com/topic/Hoa-Hao-Vietnamese-religious-movement now! Primary goal-religious independence trust each other can institute some ridiculous rules—and some of them can even cross the line., Asian Affairs, Vol his doctor to the United States of greater.. Phu So thus marked the end of the rising nationalistic fervour surrounding area is full of mosques what is hoa hao movement... 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