Noxious weeds., Olympia, Washington, USA: Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. Element stewardship abstract for Carduus pycnocephalus: Italian thistle., Arlington, Virginia, USA: The Nature Conservancy. Clopyralid is now commonly used to control thistles, although it damages clovers where these are important for herbage production in grazed pastures. Carduus pycnocephalus L. FLOWERING PLANTS OF INDIA, DICOTYLEDONS, Vol-I (Acanthaceae-Avicenniaceae) authored by S. Karthikeyan, M. Sanjappa and S. Moorthy and published by BSI, Kolkata in 2009 is an important document for names, authority and distribution of Asteraceae species in India. Plymouth Thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus) The Plymouth thistle is an annual or biannual plant native to the Mediterranean regions of Africa. Australia's virtual herbarium. (Asteraceae), and their hybrids. Italian thistle can grow densely, crowding out other vegetation with dense rosette 'colonies' in the winter, thereby preventing establishment of native plants. Naturalised since 1868 on Plymouth Hoe (south Devon). Rademacher valued the seeds in hemorrhages associated with splenic or hepatic disorders . Infests roadsides and waste areas, and has become a major problem on hill pasture land in Douglas County. Weed Science, 24(5):518-524. The chromosome numbers of two species of genus Carduus are C. getulus 2n=26, Northern Nejev; south Beer Sheva and C. pycnocephalus 2n=60, Bet-shean vally ssw of Bet-shean [17]. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2014. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added Keil D; Turner C, 1993. marmoratus (CRUAS) Carduus schimperi (CRUCH) Carduus sp. signification of the uses of thistles from the Iberian ... antiquity, the cultivation and use of thistles for food and medicinal purposes have been well ... (arkion, “lampazo”), Carduus pycnocephalus (“cardo de calvero”), C. tenuiflorus Curtis (“cardo común”), Carlina acaulis, C. Carduus species (Compositae) are widely distributed in the Mediterranean area, and traditionally used for both food and medicinal purposes. Nesom GL, 2004. Listed as C. tenuiflorus but according to Nesom (2009) this is probably a misidentification of C. pycnocephalus; Original citation: Texasinvasives.org (2014). Carduus thistles don't have the feathery seed plumes of Cirsium thistles, but their seeds are covered with bristly hairs. Weed Science. It can form dense infestations in some places where it can smother other, smaller plants and, where it occurs in grazed pastures, can limit the access of livestock and also cause them physical damage, as well as contaminating wool. It is hardy to zone (UK) 7. In New Zealand birds, especially goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis) prefer to feed on seeds of weeds, including thistles (Troup, 2012). This Encyclopedia of Himalayan Medicinal Flora is also based on extensive and intensive document research and unpublished field work of some members in the editorial board. Nyman, Carduus pycnocephalus L., Carduus cephalanthus Viv.) Carduus pycnocephalus is a thistle that is native to the Mediterranean region and some other countries further north or east. [5][8] Check with local, regional, and national regulations directing use. This may or may not increase the threat compared to native vegetation or annual grasses in the same area, but C. pycnocephalus tend to grow taller and be a better fire ladder than other species. Seed heads (no doubt containing seeds) sometimes become detached from the parent plant and can be observed clinging to the wool of grazing sheep – an excellent way of transferring seeds around the countryside. Pasture production lost to unsprayed thistles at two sites. Wilken D; Hannah L, 1998. Thistles. C. pycnocephalus is very similar in general appearance to C. tenuiflorus (often called slender thistle) but differs in having narrow discontinuous wings along the stems, 4-10-lobed leaves (as opposed to 12-20-lobed leaves in C. tenuiflorus), 3-5 heads in clusters (against 5-20), stems leafless just below the heads, and fruits that are mucilaginous or sticky (Healy, 1982). (1988) suggested that the two species hybridize so that many populations (at least in New Zealand) contain a continuum of plants showing intermediate characters. The area is then heavily grazed with sheep, which will then selectively graze the tender, etiolated thistles, killing 90 to 95% of them. Although now listed as present in several states, some on the east coast (USDA-NRCS, 2013), it is usually of limited or very limited distribution, and only seems to be of concern in California and parts of Oregon. http://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/, Bossard C; Lichti R, 2000. However, caution must be exercised when using these products, and their use is not always appropriate, especially near water surfaces and other sensitive natural habitats. species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. The seeds contain a fixed oil that is rich in linoleic acid. Presumably C. pycnocephalus was carried to many countries by the dispersal of European populations in the 19th century, when people took with them hay and straw for livestock, seed for new pastures, and bedding and packing materials that contained vegetable matter. Basal leaves 6-15 cm long, oblanceolate, deeply 4-10-lobed, the base tapered; cauline leaves alternate, decurrent, sinuate to pinnately lobed, margins spinose, upper surfaces loosely tomentose, becoming glabrous, lower surfaces densely tomentose. This Encyclopedia of Himalayan Medicinal Flora is also based on extensive and intensive document research and unpublished field work of some members in the editorial board. Webb CJ; Sykes WR; Garnock-Jones PJ, 1988. Bendall GM, 1974. It is native to: the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia; East Europe and the Caucasus; and the Indian Subcontinent.[2]. Carduus pycnocephalus Scientific name Carduus pycnocephalus Additional name information: L. Common name Italian thistle, slender thistle, shore thistle, Italian plumeless thistle Closely related California natives 0 The essential oils from two Compositae species of Iran: Centaurea depressa M.B and Carduus pycnocephalus L. obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by … Hastings, New Zealand; New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society, 28-32. In: Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. In many places, milk thistle is considered to be extremely invasive. Troup C, 2012. (Compositae) in Tasmania. Alien Invasive Plants List For South Africa. In general this fluctuation is influenced by the condition of pastures the previous late summer and autumn. American Journal of Botany, 72(5):715-718. Ailments From: Abuse of alcoholic beverages, especially beer. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Kelly (1988) found that the number of seeds per plant averaged 72 in one year and 276 the next. The annual Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus) varies in height from ankle to head high. In: Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions [ed. The compound leaves are dark green with two leaflets each. Harradine AR, 1985. In: Proceedings of the New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference, 34, 107-110. http://www.nzpps.org/journal/34/nzpp_341070.pdf, Popay AI; Lyttle LA; Edmonds DK; Phung HT, 1984. On other continents, often becoming a Noxious Weed Control Board -- -Medicinal Action and uses -- -It has used., Sykes W R, 1979 cambridge, UK: CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: as... 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